Shard is a *horizontal partition of data held on a database server or search engine to spread load. These are an amalgamation of severs necessary for Jitsi to perform and work together with important components such as JVB, Prosody, Jicofo and Jigasy to provide a smooth transition of service according to requirement. With around 250 concurrent users in Jitsi Meet, installation of Prosody, Jicofo and JVB is done in single shard whereas with 1000 concurrent users, two shards are needed for load balance.
At the heart of Jitsi are Jitsi Videobridge and Jitsi Meet. Shown below is the architecture for scaling Jitsi Meet in a cloud environment.
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JVB is an intelligent relay server and a scalable video router. JVB is the brain behind the operation of building the ultimate opensource video conferencing solution, the Jitsi Videobridge. Meanwhile, Jibri provides services for recording or streaming a Jitsi Meet conference.
To configure Jitsi Meet and allow Jibri to connect in any video conference is when Prosody comes in to play. Prosody is an xmpp (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol) server where all components connect so that they can communicate using xmpp protocol, in simple terms it can be explained as an instant messaging backend service. This includes web, Jicofo, JVB and the rest of the components.
Jicofo is the signaling focus and is in the cloud in your graphic. This conference manager, once signaled by Prosody it is the first to enter a room and orchestrates the conference by sending invites, opening channels on the videobridge etc.
Jicofo invites Jigasi in conference when a user does a dial out. Jigasi is a server-side application that links and allows regular SIP clients to join Jitsi Meet conferences hosted by Jitsi Videobridge. Jigasi registers as a SIP client and can be called or be used by Jitsi Meet to make outgoing calls. It is just a connector that allows SIP servers and B2BUAs to connect to Jitsi Meet.
This is briefly how each component back each other up and work together in Jitsi Meet.
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Horizontal Partition - each partition forms part of a shard which may in turn be located on a separate database server or physical location)